From the dawn of history, over 7,000 years ago, nations have thrived and then disappeared. Some collapses seem to have been triggered by volcanic eruptions, epidemics of disease, invading armies, civil wars, long periods of drought, or combinations of these. Surviving such challenges often depended upon the inherent strength of the political system and the resilience of citizens, but often one event was the tipping point that started a nation’s demise. In surveying the rise and fall of societies, large and small, the parallels seen in today’s world will be striking and worrisome. This is an updated, revised repeat of the class offered Fall 2018.