From 1700 to 2000 medicine was transformed from a primitive technology based on ancient traditions and conjectures to a science-based profession. More medical discoveries were made during this time than in the previous 3000 years. The multiple interlinking factors and interesting personalities that originated these fundamental changes will be highlighted in this illustrated lecture course. The topics covered include: innovations in clinical medicine and surgery, new pharmaceuticals based on modern theories, and the evolution of accurate diagnostic methods to evaluate diseases. To truly appreciate today’s medical marvels, one must first understand how far we have come.