The historical beginnings of Christianity can be examined in the context of the various religious, cultural, and political forces that shaped the Greco-Roman world in the period between Alexander the Great (4th century B.C.) and the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (4th century A.D.). Much of this turbulent period was marked by clashes between the Jews and Greeks, and then between the Jews and Romans, over issues of political autonomy and religious practice. Eventually, the emergence of Christianity at the turn of the millennium brought about still further conflict between this nascent religious movement and imperial Rome. This course looks at this conflict from Rome's point of view.